A microphone is a tool that functions as a transducer, meaning it changes one kind of energy into another kind of energy with as little variation as possible from that of the first source. Thus, it is important that you choose the right microphone for it makes a big difference to your recording output.
Since there are a lot of various microphones sold out there, you have to make your choice based on your needs especially they are built differently and thus will function differently. You will most probably come across two main types of microphones for recording your music or sound and you will be able to choose the best for your needs.
You will not actually find difficulty in choosing a microphone for your needs if you know their basic difference and which one will be right for your recording. For example, know that recording vocals will not warrant the same kind of studio microphone if you are recording instruments.
Generally, for instruments and live performances, a dynamic microphone is great to use. It will be evident to see live performers to be using this kind of microphone. On the other side, if the use is for vocals and other soft recordings of which details are extremely important, the condenser studio microphones are used. It would be beneficial to acquire both kinds of microphones and it will depend on your budget then.
In recording vocals where a flatter frequency is a must than the dynamic, the condenser will fit into the requirements. What will happen when using a condenser studio microphone is that the recording will be much clearer and more accurate, while in using dynamic which are meant for live performances and instrument recordings, details are tuned out.
With a condenser studio microphone, you will require a mixer or a preamp that provides phantom power of around 48 volts, while the dynamic does not require this power thus less sensitive.
The pickup pattern is another important thing to consider when you are choosing the best studio microphone for your recording needs. Note that there are three different basic kinds of pickup patterns and these are the omni directional microphones, the bidirectional microphones, and the unidirectional microphones.
Sounds are picked up so evenly with the omni directional microphone, and so if your purpose is for home recording studio, do not get this type since you will just be picking up other household sounds like from your television, dog barking, and so on.
In the case of the bidirectional microphone where only two directions, the front and the back, can only be picked up, is used where people can share a microphone like in radio interviews.